Much has been written  about the American healthcare system and why it fails us, especially for those not in the top 10% . I'm by no means an expert, but over the years, I've often come back to a story I heard from someone at a dinner party a few years ago. We'll call him Paul.
Paul's girlfriend, Tina, needed to get a standard panel of blood tests. She found a clinic, went in, and got her tests done. Two weeks later, she received her results, together with a bill for $5,000.
As it turns out, Tina made a mistake and went to an out-of-network clinic. Panicked, she called her insurance company. Unsurprisingly, they weren't very helpful. Despite her pleading, she was told their maximum was $1,500, that her reimbursement check was in the mail, and that's all they could do.
As a last-ditch effort, Tina called the receptionist at the clinic that did her bloodwork. She explained her situation, not expecting much. Without taking a breath, or even passing Tina to accounting, the receptionist immediately offered something unexpected. "If you can pay by credit card right now, we can settle everything for $500."
Shocked, but not willing to risk her good fortune, Tina took the offer and paid over the phone. A few days later, the $1,500 reimbursement check from her insurance provider arrived. Tina cashed the check, and went shopping.
I don't approve of Tina's ethics, but I thought the story explained much about why our healthcare is so expensive. We've created a system where every party is incentivized to use opaqueness and lack of transparency against everyone else.
 I'd start with Catastrophic Care by David Goldhill.
 One of many convincing charts, this time from OECD.